Variables and data type
Variables and data types are the most basic concepts in programming. A variable is a named location in memory that can store a value. The data type of a variable defines the type of data that can be stored in that variable.
Control structures are the building blocks of programming languages. They allow programmers to control the flow of execution of their code.
Functions and procedure
Functions and procedures are both blocks of code that can be reused in a program. It used to modularize code, which makes it easier to read, understand, and maintain.
Input and output
Input and output (I/O) is the communication between a computer program and the outside world. It is a basic concept in programming, and all programs need to have some way to interact with the user or the environment. There are two main types of I/O: • Standard I/O • User-defined I/O
Object-oriented programming is a basic Programming concept, which is used for designing a program using classes and objects. It is based on the following four concepts: • Abstraction • Encapsulation • Inheritance • Polymorphism